I recently attended an evening workshop on wairuatanga, one of the theoretical principles of tikanga, the Māori way of doing things. I gathered that Māori have an understanding and inherent belief that there is an underlying spiritual existence in addition to the physical.

We all have different points of view on the meaning of spirituality, and for some it has no meaning at all. Spirituality does not mean religion even though religion is spiritual in essence. The difference is that spirituality needn't be religious, as religion is an organised system of rituals and worship, but could be looked upon as a universal concept underlying all religions.

The purpose of this short study is to further strengthen my understanding of Māori concepts and principles to evaluate how they can be identified in the context of what I observe in my daily practice as an early childhood teacher. Based on this evaluation I hope that I can incorporate an outlook to further develop my bicultural practice.

There is no clear English definition of manaakitanga as my online search found a number of different definitions under this Māori principle. The Māori dictionary defines manaakitanga as 1. (noun) hospitality, kindness, generosity, support - the process of showing respect, generosity and care for others.

I attended a workshop a while ago that was facilitated by Warwick Pudney on 'Boys in ECE and their first year in school'. The speaker suggested that male support is vital for boys in their early years and needs to be well grounded. Boys need that male affirmation.

As an immigrant to a new land, discovering, establishing, and feeling comfortable with an identity is an important aspect of one's own journey. The settling in process can be difficult based on a number of reasons such as social integration and a desire to feel accepted as an individual who is capable of offering a contribution to society. But what about the children of immigrants who are either born here or arrive at a young age and then strive to settle in to an early childhood environment?

I have often observed children from multicultural backgrounds being brought by their parents to introduce them to an early childhood centre. A few of the children aren't native English speakers and often find it challenging to settle in to their new environment.